19 Sep 2018

DIFFERENCES IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREA

Education has a peculiar significance to the peasants, they hope their children can get high social positions by education and change their destiny. However, it is a pity that the peasants’ children will encounter great difficulties in changing the social positions through education. In all African countries, especially in Nigeria for example, laborers and the peasant-workers hold very low social positions and are not recognized in the country. In this background, the laborers, peasant workers believe that education is the key means to change the original social positions of their children.

At a certain stage in human development, the need to have a career becomes so apparent that individuals cannot but begin to plan, explore, choose and begin to seek ways of how to develop on a chosen profession or explore other opportunities that come one’s way in order to have a fulfilling career and live a life full of joy and satisfaction. A career is totality of time and effort devoted to the pursuance of work in order to live a meaningful life. It includes all the periods spent planning, acquiring education and training qualifying one for an occupation, the period of entrance into, the effort made to ensure progression including acquisition of further training, change of job and development all through a working life. Career is so important that it tends to define human personality and determine the quality of life that individuals live. However, life is dynamic and the reality of globalization stares us in the face. Gone are the days when we talk of careers and the thought of notable professions such as medicine, law, engineering, military, policing, business and piloting quickly comes to mind. These professions have enjoyed great popularity as a result of the great potentials they had, to transform individuals’ lives and change their social status and economic fortunes within a relatively short period of time. Hence, when school pupils are asked to name their future ambitions, majority tend to say medicine, engineering and the likes.

If a developing country is committed to achieving an egalitarian society, it should emphasize educational policies that aim for educational expansion along with equal access to education in place of its various direct redistributive policies. Particularly, policies aim to advance children from less well-off backgrounds to access higher education may be able to break generational cycles of deprivation and encourage economic growth. Emphasis on equity may not necessarily conflict with the objective of economic growth. While redistributive policies tend to be detrimental to economic growth, educational expansion and equal access to education have been identified as major factor contributing to economic growth by many studies.

Students from better-developed part of the country have multiple choices besides entering for University degree, hey can also go abroad or run businesses with the help of their family (background) and as a result of the kind of environment they grew up with, all they see is people making it they want the same life compare to a child from the rural area who after university degree, is still trying to get placement in a reputable company. They may achieve success in other ways, when they possess enough economic resources or social capital. However, there is no much difference in higher educational access for people who grew up urban areas or in rural area.

When children’s family income increases one level, children’s schooling would also increase. Children’s educational years will increase. when their family economic condition increase one level family economic factor plays more prominent role for children’s educational attainment. The fluctuating influence of family economic background on individual educational attainment fully embodies the strong effect of changes in state policy and ideology on the mechanism of the distribution of education opportunities.

When we look at the rural and urban education in Nigeria, gender is a contributing factor to the educational level. Females from rural areas whose parents lack the exposure and doesn’t know the usefulness and benefit of education tend to discourage their female children from furthering their education, it is widely believed among them that a female role is in the kitchen, which is not so in rural areas, where they give their children either male or female the highest level of education he/she requires.

In order to get higher education, rural students have to overcome more institutional blockages than their urban counterparts. After graduation from colleges, people with rural-origin are more likely to pursue positions in formal institutional sectors (that is, within the state socialistic redistribution system) than their urban counterparts. Though rural-origin college graduates have recognized the importance of institutional factors in structuring people’s life chances through higher educational attainment process and they have intention to pursue a position in formal institutional sectors, they have different mobility trajectories in-and-outside formal institution from urban counterparts due to the restriction of non-institutional factors in labor market. Children in rural areas could not receive the same education with children in urban areas because of the place of birth and family background.