In all African countries, especially in Nigeria for example, labourers and the peasant-workers hold very low social positions and are not recognized in the country. In this background, the labourers, peasant workers believe that education is the key means to change the original social positions of their children. Therefore, education has a peculiar significance to the peasants, they hope their children can get high social positions by education and change their destiny. However, it is a pity that the peasants’ children will encounter great difficulties in changing the social positions through education.
The imperative of careers in human life cannot be overemphasized. At a certain stage in human development, the need to have a career becomes so apparent that individuals have to begin to plan, explore, choose and begin to seek ways of how to develop on a chosen profession or explore other opportunities that come their way in order to have a fulfilling career and live a life full of joy and satisfaction. A career is the totality of time and effort devoted to the pursuance of work in order to live a meaningful life. It includes all the periods spent planning, acquiring education and training qualifying one for an occupation, and the effort made to ensure progression including the acquisition of further training, change of job and development all through a working life. Career is so important that it tends to define human personality and determine the quality of life that individuals live. However, life is dynamic and the reality of globalization stares us in the face.
If a developing country is committed to achieving an egalitarian society, it should emphasize educational policies that aim for educational expansion along with equal access to education. Particularly, policies aim to advance children from less well-off backgrounds to access higher education and able to break generational cycles of deprivation and encourage economic growth. Emphasis on equity may not necessarily conflict with the objective of economic growth.
Students from better-developed part of the country have multiple choices besides entering for University degree, they can also go abroad or run businesses with the help of their family (background) and as a result of the kind of environment they grew up with, all they see is people making it they want the same life to compare to a child from the rural area who after university degree, is still trying to get placement in a reputable company. They may achieve success in other ways when they possess enough economic resources or social capital. However, there is no much difference in higher education access for people who grew up urban areas or in a rural area.
Family income is also a contributing factor; when children’s family income increases the children’s, schooling would also increase. The parent can afford to spend any amount on the child just to see the child in pursuit of his/her dreams.
When we look at the rural and urban education in Nigeria for example, gender is a contributing factor to the educational level. Females from rural areas whose parents lack the exposure and doesn’t know the usefulness and benefit of education tend to discourage their female children from furthering their education, it is widely believed among them that a female role is in the kitchen, which is not so in rural areas, where they give their children either male or female the highest level of education he/she requires.
In order to get a higher education, rural students have to overcome more institutional blockages than their urban counterparts. After graduation from colleges, people with rural-origin are more likely to pursue positions in formal institutional sectors (that is, within the state socialistic redistribution system) than their urban counterparts. Though rural-origin university graduates have recognized the importance of institutional factors in structuring people’s life chances through higher educational attainment process and they have the intention to pursue a position in formal institutional sectors, they have different mobility in-and-outside formal institution from urban counterparts due to the restriction of non-institutional factors in labour market.
Article by: Busayo Tomoh