23 Mar 2020

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS

Artificial Intelligence is a computer science branch which aims at creating smart machines. This has become an integral part of the industrial technology. Artificial intelligence-related work is highly scientific, and specialized. Artificial intelligence’s core problems include programming machines for such characteristics such as: logical reasoning, problem solving, awareness, learning, planning, manipulation and movement of objects, etc. A central aspect of AI research is software engineering. Machines can behave and respond as human beings sometimes only if they have sufficient world-related knowledge. To incorporate information engineering, artificial intelligence needs to have access to objects, categories, properties, and relationships between all of them. Common sense initiating, reasoning and the ability to solve problems in computers is a challenging and repetitive task. Machine learning is a central part of AI, too. Learning without supervision of any kind requires the ability to identify patterns in input streams, whereas learning with proper supervision involves classification and numerical regression. Classification defines the category to which an object belongs, and regression deals with obtaining a collection of numerical input or output examples, thus discovering functions that allow the generation of suitable outputs from the respective inputs. Mathematical study of and output of machine learning algorithms is a well-defined branch of theoretical computer science often referred to as computational learning theory. Machine perception deals with the ability to use sensory inputs to deduce the different aspects of the environment, while computer vision is the power to interpret visual inputs with a few sub-problems such as facial recognition, object recognition and gestures. Robotics is also an important field relating to AI. Robots require knowledge in managing tasks such as object manipulation and navigation, along with localisation, motion planning and mapping sub-problems.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general concept that means modeling and/or replicating intelligent behavior using a computer. AI research focuses on developing and analyzing algorithms which learn and/or perform smart behavior with minimal human intervention. These techniques, to name a few, have been and continue to be applied to a wide range of issues arising in robotics, e-commerce, medical diagnosis, gaming, mathematics, and military planning and logistics. Several work groups fall under the department’s general AI umbrella but are disciplines of their own, including: robotics, natural language processing (NLP), computer vision, computational biology, and e-commerce. Specifically, work is being carried out in the fields of estimation theory, accessibility processes, multi-agent communication, natural language interfaces, machine learning, active computer vision, probabilistic language models for use in spoken language interfaces, and visual, haptic, auditory and motor knowledge modeling and integration.

Robotics is the field concerned with linking perception to action, if the link is to be successful, Artificial Intelligence must have a central role in Robotics. Artificial Intelligence answers the critical questions of what information is required in every field of thinking; how that information should be represented; and how this knowledge should be used. Robotics challenges AI by pushing it into interacting with real world objects. To meet the challenge, strategies and representations built for solely cognitive disorders, particularly in toy environments, do not generally expand. Robots incorporate mechanical, sensor, and device effectors. AI’s contributed significantly to each part. We look at AI contributions to physical object perception and reasoning. Such reasoning is about space, route planning, uncertainty and compliance. We conclude with three examples that illustrate the kinds of reasoning or problem-solving capabilities that we would like to endow robots with and that we believe Robotics and Artificial Intelligence are worthy goals, being within reach of both. One day, Artificial Intelligence (AI) will become the most powerful technology in human history, either being the best thing ever to happen to mankind or the worst. Polls have shown that, within decades, most AI researchers expect artificial general intelligence (AGI), capable of performing all cognitive tasks at a superhuman level. This will allow science and technology to accelerate dramatically, cure diseases, eradicate poverty and help spread life into our cosmos. But it could also encourage unprecedented inequality, regulation, concentration of power and accidents.

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